Archive for the ‘ Biochemistry ’ Category



Context: Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder and is one of the most leading cause for maternal and fetal mortality in developing countries.
Aim: Objective of this study was to investigate the lipid peroxidation and non-enzymatic antioxidants status in women with preeclampsia and compare the same parameters in women with normal pregnancy and postpartum preeclampsia women.
Settings and Design: District civil hospital, Case control study.
Methods and Material: The study comprised of 25 normal healthy non pregnant controls, 25 normal healthy  pregnant women in 3rd trimester and 25 preeclamptic  women in 3rd trimester. The same 3rd trimester preeclamptic women were used for follow up study after delivery and were considered as postpartum preeclamptic group. Whole blood was used to detect Malondialdehyde (MDA) a product of lipid peroxide, nonenzymatic antioxidants like reduced glutathione, vitamin E, vitamin-C and vitamin-A. Statistical significance was determined by ANOVA and multiple comparison tests.
Results: There was a consistent significant increase in lipid peroxidation (MDA) in all the groups as compared to nonpregnant controls (P< 0.001). Elevated levels of malondialdehyde in pre-eclamptic subjects declined significantly (p<0.001) after delivery. A significant
decrease (P<0.001) in the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants viz. reduced glutathione, vitamin-E, vitamin -A and vitamin – C was observed in all the groups as compared to nonpregnant controls. In the postpartum preeclamptic group significant increase was noted in all antioxidants except vitamin A as compared to preeclamptic group.
Conclusions: Our study showed clear insight into disturbances associated with normal pregnancy, which are exaggerated in  complicated pregnancy like preeclampsia with enhanced lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidants. Early attention, intensive
management and treatment are essential to improve maternal and fetal outcome



Background : Accumulating evidence suggests that type 2 diabetes is associated with chronic low grade inflammation. Serum sialic acid (SSA) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are the markers for inflammation.
Aims : The main aim of this study was to determine the serum sialic acid level in type 2 diabetic patients and study its relationship with ESRandHbA .
Settings & design : This was a case control study in which type 2 diabetes patients were considered as cases and
healthy individuals were taken as controls.
TMethods & Material : The study included totally 122 subjects of whom 51were healthy individuals, 71were of type 2 diabetes. Samples were analyzed for HbA , ESR, Sialic acid and glucose using Ion exchange HPLC,Westergrens method, Aminoff method and GOD POD method respectively.
Statistical analysis : The data were analyzed using the ‘R’ software. Resultswere expressed asmean ± SD. Spearman’s
correlation test was used for correlation studies.
Results : Serum sialic acid concentrations, ESR and HbA were significantly increased in type 2 diabetics. Sialic acid had significant positive correlation with ESR in diabetic patients as well as the controls. Sialic acid had no
correlation with glucose andHbA.
Conclusion : The markers of inflammation ESR and SSAare increased in type 2 Diabetes mellitus and can be used to monitor the subclinical inflammatory process in them.



Coronary artery disease is caused by the additive and interactive effects of several factors. Substantial evidence indicates that Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play a vital role in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Our study has been designed to evaluate the lipid peroxidation due to ROS in Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and assess the antioxidant protection against ROS. The study comprised of 50 AMI patients and 50, age and sex matched healthy subjects. Lipid peroxidation was measured as Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in serum which was observed to be significantly high in AMI patients in our study. The activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) in serum was found significantly decreased in patients with AMI. The estimation of MDA and SOD in serum of patients who underwent thrombolysis for Reperfusion indicated a further rise in serum MDA level and a decrease in serum SOD level which were statistically significant. AMI patients who were habitual smokerswere also assessed for their serum MDA and SOD levels. After reperfusion in these patients, it was observed that the lipid peroxidation was accentuated in them as reflected in their statistically significant increase inMDAand a decrease in serumSOD.

Oxidative Stress And Enzymatic Antioxidants In Acute Myocardial Infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI) is the single largest killer disease in the world. Oxidative stress is one  of the hallmarks in patients with acute myocardial infarction as observed in recent years.The objective of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in patients of acute MI.The present study comprised of 50 clinically diagnosed and ECG confirmed cases of acute MI and 50 healthy controls. Oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and enzymatic antioxidants like
superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione reductasewere estimated in the cases and controls.Statistical analysis  as carried out by using students’t’ test (unpaired). Correlation analysiswas done by using SPSS software version 16.The MDA level was significantly increased (P< 0.0001) in the cases (11.5 ± 0.72 nmol/ml) as compared to controls (6.3 ± 0.92 nmol/ml). The activity of SOD, glutathione reductase and catalasewere significantly low (P< 0.0001) in acuteMI (450.0 ± 116.76 IU/g Hb, 3.1 ± 0.79
IU/g of Hb and 2.6 ± 0.53 IU/g of Hb respectively) as compared to controls (940.4 ± 93.9 IU/g of Hb, 9 ± 1.02  IU/g of Hb and 7.3 ± 0.70 IU/g of Hb respectively). A significant negative correlation was detected between malondialdehyde and catalase activity in acute MI (r= – 0.339; p<0.02).The study indicates increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant defence in patients of acutemyocardial infarction. Antioxidant supplements are compounds obtained either by extraction from natural foods (dietary ntioxidants) or by chemical synthesis  (synthetic antioxidants). Many epidemiological data suggest that synthetic antioxidant supplementation may have a beneficial effect inmany chronic diseases. So novel t h e ra p e u t i c approaches l i ke ant i ox i d a nt supplementation may be useful in the management of persisting oxidative stress in acuteMI.

Blood and salivary gamma glutamyl transferase and oxidant-antioxidant status in chronic alcoholics


Saliva is an unused or underused diagnostic tool. There is paucity of studies on salivary biochemical changes in alcoholism. There is a need for studies which correlate the biochemical changes in saliva with those of blood.The study aimed to correlate the changes in gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT) and oxidant-antioxidant status in blood and saliva of chronic alcoholics. Blood and saliva samples of chronic alcoholics (n=50) and healthy controls (n=50) were analyzed for GGT, malondialdehyde, GSH, SOD and GST. Statistical significance of the results was evaluated by Student’s test and Karl Pearson Correlation analysis.


Serum lipids and apoprotein b levels in neonates and their correlation with maternal lipid profile & placental weight


To establish correlation if any between neonatal lipid profile and Apoprotein B levels and maternal nutritional markers (lipids,
Apo-B and placental weight).Correlation of lipid profile of newborns with markers of maternal nutrition. Settings: Department of Pediatrics, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology. New born  abies and their mothers. Methods: The cord blood samples at birth and peripheral blood  amples at oneweek of agewere taken from500 neonates and their mothers and tested for  lipid parameters viz. cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL,Chylomicrons, LDL-C, HDL-C, and VLDL-C. The weight of mother’s placentawas also taken upto the nearest 10 grams. The mean  maternal lipid values and Apo-B levels were significantly higher compared to their newborns. No significant correlation could be made between maternal lipids and neonatal plasma lipids except that infant’s HDLC approached closest to maternal HDLC levels. Amongst the “preterms”, babies born to mothers with acceptable cholesterol levels (less than 240 mg/dl) had favorable lipid profile compared to those born to mothers with  unacceptably high cholesterol levels (more than 240 mg/dl). No such difference was seen amongst the term new borns. It was also noted that as the placental weight increases, the cholesterol, LDL (low density lipoprotein) and Apo-B (Apoprotein B) rise correspondingly. This correlation was maintained even at one week of age. The strength of correlation  between placentalweight and mean lipid values highlights the importance of such a study, where  placental weight and maternal lipid values have been taken asmarkers ofmaternal nutrition.