Archive for the ‘ Anatomy ’ Category

Virtual microscopy: Here to stay?

ABSTRACT

Background: Histology has been traditionally taught using microscopes and glass slides with stained tissues. However, traditional approaches to teaching may not address the learning preferences of the millennial students. Advancements in technology have provided new opportunities for teaching and learning in medical education. Digital histological images are increasingly being used to teach histology to medical and dental students of late. The significance and feasibility of use of the virtual microscope and virtual images warrant reflection.
Objectives: To collect and review studies from published medical literature. To compare the experience in our institution with data available from the literature review.
Materials and  Methods: A review of published medical literature on the implementation, strengths and limitations, and impact of the use of virtual microscopy (VM) has been conducted. The findings have been compared with the experience in our institution.
Result: Most of the studies that evaluated students’ learning outcomes in histology after being taught using VM have reported significant improvements in the students’ performance. Our experience has been the same.
Discussion: In comparison with the traditional microscope-based approach of teaching histology, VM is at least as effective if not more for learning tissues at the microscopic level. The advantages of adopting VM far outweigh its limitations.
Conclusion: A judicious blending of traditional and technology based instruction would be beneficial to the tech-savvy generation of medical students.

Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and syphilis among blood donors at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Salem, Tamil Nadu

ABSTRACT

Background: Blood transfusion is a rare, uncommon but important mode of transmission of infections to recipients. This study was conducted to evaluate the markers of human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and syphilis among blood donors in Salem, Tamil Nadu.
Materials and Methods: A 1-year retrospective study was conducted from June 2013 to June 2014 at the Immunohematology and blood transfusion center at Vinayaka Missions Kirupananda Variyar Medical College, Salem. A total of 3680 donors were tested.
Results: About 59% were replacement donors and 41% were voluntary donors. The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and syphilis was found to be 0.065%, 0.662%, 0.779%, and 0.150% in voluntary blood donors as against the figures 1.063%, 1.382%, 0.323%, and 0.564% in replacement blood donors.
Conclusion: The seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, and syphilis was more in replacement donors than voluntary donors. This calls for mandatory routine screening with more sensitive and stringent screening methods for blood donations.

Radiological Diagnosis of Spindle Cell Carcinoma in Gingiva of 17-Years-Old Female

ABSTRACT

Spindle cell carcinoma is a rare, high malignant variant of squamous cell carcinoma, which shows biphasic proliferation of conventional squamous cell carcinoma component and malignant spindle-shaped cells with sarcomatous appearance. A case of spindle cell carcinoma of 17-years-old female patient was presented with swelling in the oral cavity for 1 month in relation to upper jaw, computed tomography scan revealed iso-to-hypodense mass lesion of gingival origin on either side of maxilla on right side with periosteal reaction in inner aspect, and minimal reactive bone erosion of the alveolar process of the right upper canine and premolar teeth. Histological fi nding showed typical histology of spindle cell carcinoma. In summary, we present a unique case of spindle cell carcinoma in gingival of 17-years-old female, which has not been described in the literature.

ABSTRACT

Background: Markers of body fat distribution such as body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) are consistently associated with the conventional cardiovascular (CV) risk factor like abnormal lipid profi le. The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) is a strongly emerging index for cardiac risk stratifi cation as well as hypertension and diabetes.
Aims and objectives: (1) To assess serum lipid profi le and to calculate the AIP in healthy adults of the urban area. (2) To assess the association between BMI and WHR with AIP and lipid profi le parameters.
Materials and Methods: Totally, 80 healthy individuals with the age group of 25-55 years were included for this cross-sectional study. BMI and WHR were calculated. Subjects were divided into two groups (obese and non-obese) based on their BMI. Lipid profi le was estimated and AIP was calculated using an online calculator.
Results: Statistically signifi cant increase in WHR, triglyceride, and AIP were observed, when obese individuals were compared to their non-obese counterparts. A statistically signifi cant negative association was seen between WHR and high-density lipoprotein levels in obese as well as non-obese individuals.
Conclusion: AIP is a better predictor of CV risk even in healthy individuals, monitoring of which should be done irrespective of body fat distribution.

Hydatid cysts of the abdomen and pelvis: A case report

ABSTRACT

Hydatid disease is still an important health hazard in the world. It is a parasitic infestation which is endemic in India. To evaluate the clinical appearance and treatment in a patient with a postoperative recurrence of hydatid cysts. This case report reviewed the ultrasonographic (USG) and computed tomography (CT) features with the help of esaote USG machine and SIEMENS SOMATOM 16 slice CT machine. Due to the less invasiveness and high accuracy of USG and CT in the diagnosis of hydatid cyst, it is the method of choice. Complete removal of cyst by surgery is required.

Multifocal osteoid osteoma of the midshaft of femur : A case report

ABSTRACT

Multifocal osteoid osteoma is a very rare entity occurring predominantly in males between the ages of 10 and 25 years. To evaluate the radiograph demonstrated (two) lytic lesions with surrounding sclerosis along the posterior cortex of the right femur with computed tomography (CT) scan. We report a 21-year-old man who presented with pain in the right leg since 11 months, which were partially relieved by over-the-counter analgesics. CT scan demonstrated two lytic lesions with surrounding sclerosis along the posterior cortex of the right femur. This case report reviews CT features taken with the help of SIEMENS SOMATOM 16 slice CT machine. A detailed history with a high index of suspicion can lead to a prompt diagnosis. CT scans confi rmed the diagnosis of multifocal osteoid osteoma showing the multiple nidus and surrounding osteosclerosis. Adequate surgical excision of the nidus can be curative and may give rise to a complete remission of symptoms without recurrence.

 

DOUBLE INFERIOR VENA CAVA -A CASE REPORT

ABSTRACT

A case of double Interior Vena Cave (IVC) where left sided IVC is of the dimensions of normal IVC and the right one is much smaller is reported. Various anomalies of IVC were studied to find out if such a defect is previously recorded. 1 Double IVC, as such, is a rare anomaly .It occurs in 0.2- 2 0.5% of cases . Left sided IVC is reported where right IVC is absent. What makes our case unusual is that both right & left IVC were seen. But, left IVC had proportions & tributaries of normal IVC while, right IVC was much smaller. We did not find such a case reported any where previously.

HISTOMORPHOMETRIC STUDY OF DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS IN FETUSES OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUP

ABSTRACT

Ductus arteriosus (DA) from six fetuses of different gestational period (20-30 weeks) were studied microscopically to observe the gradual sequential changes that occur in the wall during the process of closure. DA was found to originate either from left pulmonary artery or from bifurcation of pulmonary trunk. Gradual increases in length, outer and inner diameter of DA were observed. Microscopically tunica
media and tunica intima showed changes in the arrangement of muscle fibers, collagen and elastic fibrils. The appearance of intimal cushion due to the proliferation and migration of muscle fibers marked the occlusion process of lumen of DA.

PREVALENCE OF ‘DOUBLE BRACHIAL ARTERIES’: CADAVERIC STUDY IN TWO DISTANT ZONES OF INDIA

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Brachial artery duplication is not very uncommon as described in literature, though its prevalence data is lacking especially in Indian population due to insufficient information from cadaveric study.

Objective: A cadaveric study was undertaken with 27 cadavers spanning over three years time carried out simultaneously at two distant zones of India with a rare possibility of mixing of population; one at a medical college in Andhra Pradesh (East Godavari District) and
the other, at a medical college in West Bengal (Darjeeling District). Incidences of double brachial arteries were documented. Result: Incidence of double brachial arteries was noted to be more preponderant in the population covered in southern India (almost one-third), in comparison to that in eastern India (almost one-tenth). The anomaly was found to be more on the right side (almost two-third of the variant cases) than on the left, which was similar in both the regions. Grossly, two levels of bifurcation were noted, one in the axilla and the other in the arm. The former was found to be more common than the later; but the pattern differed in the two zones.

Conclusion: An anomalous binary brachial distribution is not only important from anatomists’ point of view, but also for the surgeons. Since, such an extensive study carried out in two different zones of India is quite rare, documentation of the study is obviously warranted for emphasis on the anomaly.

DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN KIDNEY- A STUDY OF EARLY FOETAL STAGES

ABSTRACT

The present study has been under taken to review the prenatal development of kidney in human fetuses of Indian origin. With the advent of modern technology & equipments for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the field of medical science, it becomes imperative to have sound knowledge of basic human morphology & developmental anatomy. The present work is an attempt to analyse the growth pattern of kidney in human fetuses, which may prove useful in defining the foetal kidney diseases such as agenesis, hypolpasia, multicystic kidney, polycystic kidney etc., In this process, foetuses of 1 , 2 & rd 3 trimesters obtained from local hospitals have been subjected to protocol of dissection, processing & staining procedures already in existence.

PRENATAL FATAL PRUNE BELLY SYNDROME – A CASE REPORT

ABSTRACT

The present case is a lethal variant of Prune Belly syndrome with bilateral hydronephrosis , bilateral cryptoorchidism and bilateral pulmonary hypoplasia as the prominent presenting features; polydactyly of both hands and bowing of the proximal parts of both forearm
bones and leg bones as the associated characterstics. Maldevelopment of the collecting system of the kidneys and the hypoplasia of lungs, a consequence of mesodermal developmental abnormality is responsible for the fatal form of Prune Belly syndrome.

RADIAL ARTERY ARISING FROM AXILLARY ARTERY – AN UNUSUAL VARIATION

ABSTRACT

Arterial pattern of upper limb has been extensively studied. Radial artery is known for its variations. Yet high origin from first part of axillary artery and its superficial course in the arm as well as forearm has a great clinical significance.We report a case of radial artery arising from first part of axillary artery and coursing in the superficial fascia in the arm and forearm. The high origin and superficial course may be hazardous and vulnerable during venepuncture and surgical procedures. On the other hand it may make arterial grafts and cardiac catheterization easier.

BILATERAL VARIANT POLYCYSTIC KIDNEYS WITH HEPATIC FIBROSIS IN A 32 WEEKS FOETUS – A CASE REPORT

ABSTRACT

A still born male foetus of 32 weeks gestational age was brought to the anatomy department from a private nursing home in Vizianagaram as a part of routine research work in the department. The foetus was subjected to routine dissection, after embalming & fixation. On gross examination, morphological features of lung, liver & kidneys were found to be inconsistent with normal anatomy for that age group. This prompted the author to take up an in depth study of the viscera by histological examination. Morphological peculiarities of both kidneys with well marked & unusual shallow pits were noticed. The kidneys were otherwise of normal size for the age. Liver was small in size with dilated umbilical vein. Lungswere hypoplastic.

STUDY OF SHAPE OF PLACENTA AND ITS RELATION TO PLACENTAL WEIGHT IN NORMAL AND COMPLICATED PREGNANCIES

ABSTRACT

The placenta is a flattened discoidal mass with an approximately circular or oval outline formed partly from decidua basalis and chorion frondosum. Abnormalities of the shape of placenta like bi-discoidal, lobed, placenta membranacea or diffuse, placenta succenturiata, fenestrated placenta, circumvallate and circummarginate placentae have been encountered in literature but very remotely studied in relavance to clinical significance. These abnormal shapes of placenta are associated with reduced placental efficiency and this long standing pathology impiars placental (and by extension,potentially fetal) development. Not much attention and importance has been shown on the shape of the placenta in normal and complicated pregnancies. Because of the above reason this study was carried out in 100 placental specimens, 20 from normal pregnancies and 80 from complicated pregnancies like pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, anaemia and preterm. The specimens were obtained from primi and multigravida mothers following normal and caesarean section deliveries from the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Egmore, Chennai, during the period of 2006-2009. The collected placentae were washed in tap water, membranes were examined and then trimmed. The shape and weight of 100 placentae were studied. Complicated pregnancies showed significant varied shape pattern like kidney,  heart, triangle, placenta biparita, placenta circumvallata and placenta succenturiata. Relation between shape and weight of placentawas attempted and the resultwas that weight is increased in gestational diabetes mellitus and decreased in pre-eclampsia, anaemia and preterm when compared to normal pregnancies. This study is unique,an eyeopener,for the clinicians to be aware of such variations and treat them at earliest.

MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS FOR SEXUAL DIMORPHISM OF SKULL

ABSTRACT

In medico legal cases, identification of sex of an individual has got a prime importance. Skull is important in this regard as it resists adverse environmental conditions over time. The present study is an attempt to get a discriminant functional score by applying multivariate analysis using SPSS on 44 male and 29 female skulls of known age and sex. Parameters used are Maximum cranial length, cranial breadth, Orbital height, Orbital breadth, Nasal height, Nasal breadth, Bizygomatic diameter and Nasion– Prosthion length. A mean score for male skulls (Z ) is obtained by subjecting mean values of all the variables of males to discriminant function. Similarly Z is obtained for females. Z is the sectioning point which in our study is – 0.246. If the value of discriminant functional score of any unknown skull is > – 0.246, the skull is male and if it is < – 0.246, the skull is female. In the present study, percentage of skulls
correctly identified by this method is 95.5% for males and 86.2% for females.

Variations In The Tributaries Of Great Saphenous Vein At The Sapheno-Femoral Junction And Its Clinical Implication

ABSTRACT

Many variations and abnormalities are more frequently reported in veins than in arteries. The variations aremore commonin the upper segment of great saphenous vein in its tributaries, where it ends into the femoral vein. There is marked variation in the anatomy of the superficial venous system involving the individual tributaries at the Sapheno-Femoral Junction (SFJ), namely the superficial epigastric, circumflex iliac and external pudendal veins as well as the lateral or medial accessory saphenous veins.
These variations in the upper tributaries of the vein are one of the frequent causes of failure to achieve the expected results following primary ligation for the treatment of varicose veins. In the recent past, anatomical studies related to the incidence and the pattern of variation in the tributaries of Great Saphenous Vein (GSV) in Indian population has been sparse. Hence the present studywas done.

EOSIN AS COLORING AGENT FOR EMBALMING OF CADAVERS

ABSTRACT

The present study is carried out in the department of anatomy by adding eosin in the embalming fluid which is effective in maintaining life like appearance of the body for funeral embalming and for the purpose of dissection.Itwas observed that the use of eosinwas very effective in preventing discoloration after embalming for funeral purpose aswell as for identifying arterial fluid from cavity fluid and life like appearance of the soft tissues.

New insight into complex variation of superficial palmar arch—case report

ABSTRACT

This article includes a unique and complex variation in the arterial pattern of right hand of a male cadaver. The arterial supply of hand in this case was through an incomplete superficial palmar arch formed by ulnar artery that supplied medial 2 ½ fingers through proper and common digital branches. Median and radial arteries supplied lateral 2 ½ fingers of the hand through common digital branches. A loop of communication was present between radial and median arteries. The Knowledge of anatomical variations in the arterial pattern of hand is of utmost importance for the surgeons in executing safer and precise reconstructive surgical procedures in the hand.

Unilateral variant cervical vertebral artery – a case report

ABSTRACT

During routine dissection of a 60year old male cadaver,we observed an atypical origin and course of the left vertebral artery. We found an additional branch arising from the arch of aorta, which was located in between the left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery.This variant left verterbral artery ascended through the foramentransversarium of third cervical vertebra.

Termination of left coronary artery in the population of assam

ABSTRACT

Coronary heart disease is assuming epidemiological proportions, causing increasing mortality and morbidity in both developed and developing countries. Coronary arteries show wide variations in origin, course, termination and branching pattern. These have not been extensively covered in the available Anatomy text books. Failure to distinguish between normal and anomalous
structures may lead to misinterpretations in diagnosis and disastrous complications during heart surgery. With the rapid strides made in cardiac care in India, an in-depth study of the coronary arteries specific to the Indian population is needed. This study therefore aims to focus on the pattern of termination of left coronary artery in the population of Assam, which is ethnically unique from the rest of India. Hundred hearts were studied in the department of Anatomy, Gauhati Medical College,
Assam. The coronary arteries were examined by gross dissection. The modes of termination of the left coronary artery were noted. The left coronary artery had a length of 3-32 millimeter. It commonly bifurcated into anterior interventricular artery and circumflex artery in 60 % hearts. It showed trifurcation in 35%and quadrifurcation in 5 % cases. The modes of termination of the anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery were also noted. The results of the study were compared with other authors.

Bicondylar angle of femur in south indian population – an analytical study

ABSTRACT

The bicondylar angle of femur is an angle between the axis of shaft of the femur and a line perpendicular to the infracondylar plane. This angle is unique to humans due to their erect posture. Measuring of this angle helps in identifying sex of the bone and has a role in reconstructive orthopedic surgeries, primatology and paleoanthropology. This angle is zero at birth and starts
developing only when the child walks. This angle is more in females due to their wider pelvis and short stature. Racial and regional variations are noted in this angle. Number of studies have been done on the bicondylar angle of the femur in human anatomy, primatology and paleoanthropology. But there is no previous study on South Indian adult femora, hence this study is undertaken to measure the bicondylar angle of femur and to compare with different regions of the country. This angle was
measured in 204 South Indian adult femora. The mean bicondylar angle of male and femalewas 8.53 and 10.16 respectively. The bicondylar angle exhibited sexual dimorphism with stastically significant higher value for female femora. This angle was higher when compared to North Indian population and almost similar to NorthWest Indian population.

Left sided abdominal wall defect: a case report

ABSTRACT

Omphalocoele and gastroschisis are congenital abdominal wall defects. Gastroschisis typically occurs to the right of the umbilicus. Left sided gastroschisis is rare. A case report of an abdominal wall defect in the left upper part of abdomen, distant from an intact umbilicus is presented. Only two similar cases have been reported in literature.

Ostium primum type of atrial septal defect with cleft anterior mitral leaflet rare case report

ABSTRACT

The atrial septal defect of ostium primum type with cleft anterior mitral leaflet is a rare congenital cardiac defect. It contributes for about 4% of congenital heart diseases and occurs in 2 in 10000 live births. A 12 year old girl’s echocardiography showed this anomaly when the patient presented with breathlessness to the Department of Radiology, Chettinad Medical College and Research
Institute, Chennai. This study focuses on the anatomical knowledge along with embryologic development of inter atrial septum and  endocardial cushions which provide the basis for better understanding of pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of this rare anomaly.

ABSTRACT

Bilateral Vas aberrans (VA) / superficial brachial artery originating from 3rd part of axillary artery with variations in the formation and branching of cords of brachial plexus on right side and additional contribution to median nerve from musculocutaneous nerve on both sides were observed in a male cadaver among the 25 dissected for student demonstration. In the
literaturethereisnoreportedincidence of bilateral superficial brachial artery with associated variations in brachial plexusor its branches.

Study of carotico clinoid foramen in dry human skulls of north interior karnataka

ABSTRACT:

Variations in sellar region like the interclinoid bar and the carotico clinoid foramen may cause difficulty for clinoidectomy procedures. The present study is an effort to know more about carotico clinoid foramen in skulls of North Interior Karnataka region. For the present study, dry unknown human skulls were obtained from North Interior Karnataka region collected in the Department of Anatomy of BLDEU’s Shri B.M.Patil Medical College, Bijapur. The carotico clinoid foramen were studied in the dry human skulls andwere observed for various parameters like complete or incomplete, unilateral and bilateral. The datawas analyzed statistically with chi square test. Carotico clinoid foramen was observed in 223 skulls and was found in 83(37.19%) skull bones. Amongst 223 skull bones, in 39 (17.47%) skulls the carotico clinoid foramen formed a complete foramen; and in 44 (19.71%) skulls it formed incomplete foramen. Complete bilateral carotico clinoid foramen was found in 23 skulls (10.31%) and complete unilateral was found in 16 skulls (7.16%). Incomplete bilateral carotico clinoid foramen was found in 7 skulls (3.13%). Incomplete unilateral foramen was found in 37 skulls (16.58%) on right side -20 skulls (8.96%) and left side-17 skulls (7.62%). Detailed knowledge of carotico clinoid foramen will increase the success of the regional surgery.